Get the LED Out

January 23, 2012

I love to cook, and I really enjoy shopping for the evening meal’s ingredients and then creating it (and eating it, too). I am also a kitchen voyeur. So, the other night, while aimlessly flipping channels, I landed on a popular show on the Cooking Channel (their motto is “Stay Hungry”) called Iron Chef America. Some of you might be familiar with it. I don’t usually like contest shows, but the host was Alton Brown, a renowned chef and a damn funny and clever one, too, I might add. So I gave in and became thoroughly engrossed in the often-frenetic culinary machinations of two highly gifted food alchemists. I might also add that one of my favorite films is the adorable “Ratatouille”. I will watch it in its entirety when every I happen to see it playing on some cable station.

Two iconic iron chefs were selected, Bobby Flay, one of my favorites, and Rick Bayless, one of my other favorites. In my humble opinion, the only chefs comparable to these guys are Jacques Pepin, my current all-time favorite, and Julia Child, in my view the greatest all-round chef of modern times! Flay and Bayless were charged with using buffalo meat as the secret ingredient in as many Mexican/Southwestern style cuisine dishes as they could assemble in one hour. Of course they had lots of help from their highly competent staff of sous chefs. They both used lots of different ingredients derived from a wide variety of crop plants to augment and compliment the meats being prepared. As the show unraveled, amid Flay shout-outs and Bayless’ artful food plating schemes, I began fantasizing that one of the requirements of the contest should be that they had to use only those ingredients that were grown in their own vertical farms attached to their up-scale restaurants in New York and Chicago. In the end, cherubically charming Flay won on a single style point! I had them tied for first.

As I dozed off afterwards, with images of buffaloes jumping one at a time over the fence at the Ted Turner ranch in the Ruby River valley of western Montana, I got to thinking (dreaming) about LED lighting for indoor crops and how much we need to improve the situation before the commercial side of vertical farming becomes a no-brainer with respect to the return on investment side of things. Granted, there are lots of places where energy is never going to be a major factor in deciding whether or not to invest in a vertical farm, for example Iceland, New Zealand, and other parts of the world where geothermal energy is there for the taking. In addition, other areas in which solar energy is begging to be applied to this new agricultural initiative – The Middle East, Australia, the American Southwest – would also be able to employ LEDs as they currently exist and still reap a favorable return on their investment. But for the rest of us, help is needed at the level of improving LED lighting efficiency to encourage more people to get involved in building and operating vertical farms.

So… how would it play out if we could use the Iron Chef America format to showcase the latest in LED lighting, turning it into a lighting “throw-down”, in which anyone with an improved LED lighting system for making green plants grow faster and better using less energy than the currently commercially available LEDs could participate. Of course, the time frame would be longer than an hour; weeks to months would be more appropriate, depending upon the crops selected. In addition to the standard leafy green vegetables (kale, spinach, lettuce), root vegetables, vine crops, grains, and bush berries might be a good mix of crops to challenge any lighting scheme/growing system. All crops would be maintained under a standardized hydroponic configuration, save for the lighting. To insure fairness of growing conditions, a grand master/iron chef-like personality             with indoor farming experience would be placed in charge. Rules and such would be drawn up by a blue-ribbon committee, and the contest would be well-advertized. High-end celebrity chefs, and green foodie Hollywood stars might decide to back such a venture. The Discovery Channel might pick up the show, calling it: “Let There Be Light”. At the end of the show, large cash prizes (millions of dollars; Mr. Buffett, are you listening?) would be awarded in each crop category to the group that showed a significant improvement in the ratio of grams of biomass produced per kilowatt of electricity used. The actual crops could be donated to worthy causes as food donations under the slogan, “Up With Food”!

The companies that could really make a difference here are Phillips, Siemens, and General Electric. They have all invested heavily in LED technologies, and great strides have been made in just over the last few yeas in terms of efficiency and specificity for what the plants need. More work is needed, however. They are all on the verge of setting the vertical farming/indoor agriculture industries free from economic burdens related to energy use. My plea is for them to keep on truckin’ and stay hungry, so that the two billion people who go to bed that way each day will eventually have something better to look forward to!


Growing Concerns

December 1, 2011

The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), has just released its 2011 assessment of the state of the world‘s agriculture and it is not a pretty picture. In fact, its down right grim:

ROME (AP): December 1, 2011 — The United Nations has completed the first-ever global assessment of the state of the planet’s land resources, finding in a report Monday that a quarter of all land is highly degraded and warning the trend must be reversed if the world’s growing population is to be fed.

The U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that farmers will have to produce 70 percent more food by 2050 to meet the needs of the world’s expected 9 billion-strong population. That amounts to 1 billion tons more wheat, rice and other cereals and 200 million more tons of beef and other livestock.

But as it is, most available land is already being farmed, and in ways that often decrease its productivity through practices that lead to soil erosion and wasting of water.

That means that to meet the world’s future food needs, a major “sustainable intensification” of agricultural productivity on existing farmland will be necessary, the FAO said in “State of the World’s Land and Water Resources for Food and Agriculture.”

Things appear to be getting worse and worse, as year after year, the climate continues to change at an accelerating rate, and adverse weather events continue to increase as the result of that acceleration, despoiling huge tracts of arable land and rendering them unusable for the foreseeable future. How much more of this environmental insult must we endure before the world’s agricultural communities stop what they are doing and adopt new methods for growing most of our soil-based crops? Of course, I am referring to vertical farming.

I have been advocating for some years now for all the richest countries to pool a small fraction of their trillions of dollars of resources (ten billion would do the job nicely) and support the establishment of a global urban-based agriculture that takes advantage of the fact that we can easily grow most of what we need inside controlled environment structures. In fact, The Republic of Korea is already ahead of the rest of the world in this regard, having established a vertical farm and nearby seed bank in March of 2011. Successful commercial ventures in Japan (Nuvege), have shown that this method of food production can be highly profitable. A few other vertical farms have been established in other places, but there needs to be a much large investment in this kind of farming if we are to stave off a world food crisis that may already be starting.

In the developed world, trying to save traditional agriculture by allowing large argo-businesses to have their way with the soil has done nothing more than to allow these companies to reap more profits, as food prices increase due to the increase in the price of oil. We need a national policy shift to give a voice to the consumers who continue to demand safe, health food choices that are available year round. This can only be achieved by production schemes that employ high tech greenhouse methods – hydroponics, aeroponics, aquaponics.  Locating large-scale indoor farms next to the largest urban centers solves many problems that now plague the current food system – harvesting before the produce is ripe, shipping and handling, food spoilage – at every step of the food chain from farm to table.

Elections are just around the corner, yet I have heard very little about the food crisis and potential solutions from either side of the aisle. What’s up with that??? Come on America. Lets face up to the situation and solve this problem. Guaranteed that if we do, then lots of other problems will disappear, as well!


Robert Shope was a highly respected virologist who discovered, among other things, the causative agent of warts, the Shope papilloma virus. He also worked on parasitic worms, and in particular Metastrongylus, a parasitic lung worm often found in farm-raised swine. Pigs get infected by ingesting the embryonated eggs found in fecally-contaminated soil. Shope demonstrated that these long-lived, environmentally resistant ova were capable of harboring swine influenza virus, serving as its “Trojan Horse”. This finding led him to speculate that Metastrongylus might play a role in the transmission of the virus from pig to pig, and perhaps even to people, as well. Swine flu is a life-threatening respiratory infection, so knowing how it is maintained in the environment was an important step in the design of public health programs to limit its spread. The fact that Metastrongylus is found everywhere that pigs are raised is a testament to its simple strategy for transmission. As it turned out, this parasite was not responsible for transmitting swine flu, but Shope’s studies did re-enforce the fact that fecal contamination of pig farms was impossible to control.

Shope was feisty and notorious for his tell-it-like-it-is attitude and “to hell with social protocol”. His laboratory was located at the prestigious Rockefeller University in New York City on the third floor of Theobald Smith Hall. But despite being recognized as a venerable charter member of that “ivory tower” of science, he was compelled to plainly announce to the world his findings regarding the transmission of his now favorite virus, swine flu. Shope created a rather rude saying in bold, easy-to-read lettering and posted it prominently above the entrance to his lab for all visitors to see (much to the chagrin of university officials leading tours of that famous institution, I might add). It read:

The Earth Is Covered With A Thin Layer of Shit

In principle, the World Health Organization agrees with Shope. They state flatly that over half of the world’s farms still use untreated animal waste as fertilizer, and most of it is of human origin. Feces are easy to get and cost nothing. It is also a very good fertilizer! But this creates a real problem, because like the pig parasite story, this unsanitary practice results in the transmission of many fecally-transmitted infectious diseases of humans, as well: a wide variety of dysentery-causing microbes, geo-helminths (intestinal worm parasites that include Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiuraStrongyloides stercoralis, and hookworm), and several life-threatening water-borne parasites, the most serious of which is schistosomiasis. These two groups of fecally-transmitted worms infect some 2 billion individuals, and cause serious illness in millions of children, world-wide. Hookworm, alone, infects some 1 billion people. To acquire hookworms, all one has to do is walk around barefoot on ground that is contaminated with human feces that contain the eggs of these parasites. The simple act of swimming in fecally-contaminated fresh water exposes people to the schistosomes. In both of these cases, the parasite does the rest by penetrating our unbroken skin.

Farming facilitates the spread of these parasites, albeit unbeknownst to the farmer. Other microbial infections of animal origin regularly piggy-back on fresh produce, causing outbreaks of serious diseases such as listeriosissalmonella, and E. coli strain 0157.  The prevention of all of these health risks is to isolate our crops from outside sources of fecal contamination. Indoor controlled environment agriculture is the answer. The more we become victimized by preventable outbreaks of food-borne or water-borne illnesses, the easier it is to convince the public as to the value of creating another way of raising food.

Less developed countries are the most affected by these parasites. Eliminate these parasites and the world would be quite a different place. Literacy rates would go up, infant mortality rates would plummet, and the economic picture would go from grim to self-sustainable.  Eventually, birth rates would also drop, and people would now be able to afford so-called “luxury” items like TVs, homes, and cars.

The vertical farm movement is now well underway, and with it the emergence of a new era in food safety and security, whose mantra is avoidance rather than treatment of easily preventable infectious diseases. Millions of lives and billions of health care dollars will be saved when finally everyone can enjoy fresh vegetables and fruits grown under controlled conditions designed specifically to prevent the spread of these insidious microbial infections. Talk about a good return on investment!